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A Powerful Awakening: Understanding Historic Trauma for Native Abuse Survivors
Friday, February 06 2015
 
Written by Jon Lurie,
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a powerful awakening-nancy bordeaux-web.jpgAs attention turns to relationships this time of year, for some Native American women, the reality of their lives is less than loving.

According to U.S. Department of Justice statistics, Native American women are victims of domestic violence or physical assault at more than double the rate of other racial group. An estimated one in three Native American women are assaulted or raped in their lifetimes and three out of five experience domestic violence.

The White House proclaimed January National Stalking Awareness Month and the U.S. Department of Education declared the same month as National Human Trafficking Awareness Month. Both issues have an impact on Native women on and off the reservation. But for one women's advocate in the Twin Cities, the goal is to heal the root of the problems through traditional methods, addressing historical trauma.

Nancy Bordeaux ran away from the Rosebud Reservation in 1986, escaping an abusive husband who nearly took her life. She was 27 years-old when she started over in Minneapolis. There she met other Native people, refugees of government relocations programs and women like her. There were a lot of women like her; while Bordeaux’s circumstance was tragic it was, unfortunately, not uncommon. Nor is it uncommon now.

Bordeaux found work keeping books for the Mdewakantowan Dakota’s casino operations in Prior Lake, Minn. She established a peaceful home, but was unhappy in her professional life, counting money for the tribe. She wanted to help women seeking to put their lives back together after leaving abusive relationships.

After several attempts Bordeaux thought she had found a job doing just that when she was hired by the Minnesota Indian Women’s Resource Center. They put her to work, however, on Indian child welfare cases. Bordeaux’s duties included entering people’s homes, alongside county child protection agents, to investigate reported maltreatment of Indian children. “That’s when I started learning about the institutional racism that exists within the American system of justice,” she said.

The job, she says, started to eat her alive. “They were opening cases against Indian parents when they shouldn’t have, removing children from homes, transferring them into the care of non-Indian people. I no longer wanted to work for a system that perpetuated genocide – the forced removal and transfer of children from one ethnic group to another.”

After the realization that she “couldn’t continue to exist as if I was an assimilated Indian living in the city,” Bordeaux returned to the Rosebud Reservation where she sought help and healing among traditional spiritual people. “Looking back, I realize that the most powerful thing I did to help my people was return to our ceremonies,” she said.

Today, the 56 year-old Sicangu Lakota says she is optimistic about the futures of many of the women she’s helped through her work in women's advocacy. Bordeaux feels some satisfaction knowing that the extensive networking she’s done seems to be having an impact at the national level.

At the urging of Attorney General Eric Holder, congress passed the 288-page reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act last month, which included language proposed by the Justice Department that for the first time would allow tribal courts to prosecute non-Indians who assaulted native women on tribal lands. It would also allow the courts to issue and enforce protective orders, whether the perpetrator is Indian or non-Indian.

While Bordeaux welcomes the tightening of laws to aid in the prosecution of abusers, she is focused on healing the victims. Over the course of her career she has come to see that no law can mend the flesh, bones and psyche of Native women who survive assault. There is only one thing that can accomplish that, she says – a return to traditional spiritual ways, a practice that will not only heal the present generations, but future generations as well.


Growing the Herb: Marijuana and Indian Country
Friday, February 06 2015
 
Written by Winona LaDuke,
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“I think that decriminalizing recreational use would benefit our people greatly since so many of us use it and many have been incarcerated for possessing it. The tribes certainly could gain by better controlling how it exists within our communities as well as financially with sales and possible taxation … We have retained aboriginal rights to utilize medicines within our communities the way we see fit.”

Martin Reinhardt, Professor at Northern Michigan University

It’s time to reconsider the regulation of marijuana and hemp. With the Pineole Pomo Tribe of California initiating the first tribal commercial marijuana grow operation and the Department of Justice’s announcement that it would not prosecute for marijuana or hemp, the door has been opened to look at the regulatory scheme. This December, Justice Department Director Monty Wilkinson announced, “The eight priorities in the Cole memorandum will guide United States Attorneys' marijuana enforcement efforts in Indian Country, including in the event that sovereign Indian nations seek to legalize the cultivation or use of marijuana in Indian Country.”

In turn, the Pomo tribe, which is located in Mendicino County, one of the largest marijuana growing counties in the country, announced a commercial venture with two partners, Colorado-based United Cannabis and Kansas-based FoxBarry Farms. The 250-member tribe announced that it will grow thousands of plants for the medical marijuana business on its 99-acre reservation.

What’s the catch? There are a lot of them, especially in any states which have not yet legalized marijuana. U.S. Deputy Attorney General James Cole, for instance, said that the DOJ will retain the right to prosecute individuals who engage in the distribution of marijuana to minors, where revenue is going to criminal enterprises, drugged driving or diversion to a state where it is not legal.

While some tribes are looking to this as a highly lucrative business, others are considering just the local economics and pros and cons of the industry. In the least on the cautious side, tribal police are already pretty busy and under funded, so the keeping of marijuana to within reservation borders, may be a bit of a challenge for any regulatory authority. And that “ Driving While Indian” thing that occurs when you leave the reservation boundaries is, well, going to be supremely tested if tribes go ahead. There is, not an easy path in any case.


The Economics

I am told that 40 percent of my community smokes the herb. The fact is we’re spending millions of dollars a year importing marijuana from, largely unsavory characters onto the reservation, creating a great loss to our tribal economy. This is undeniable in every reservation. I haven't done complete studies, but in order to buy marijuana from dealers elsewhere, conservative estimates indicate $60,000 a week is draining from the my own reservation, White Earth. With a little math, it looks like around $3 million annually is drained from the reservation for purchases.

That is coming out of tribal pockets; pockets in some of the poorest counties in the state. That is part of our challenge. Could tribes stop that economic drain with a local marijuana economy? There are some larger economic benefits, for both hemp or marijuana, as well as risks.


Hemp Economics

Over 30 nations grow industrial hemp today, including Canada, France, England, Russia, China, Germany and Australia. China is the largest producer of industrial hemp. On the other side, the U.S.is the largest consumer of hemp products, with total annual retail sales in 2013 of $580 million. Between 60 and 90 percent of the raw hemp materials imported into the U.S. come from Canada, which legalized hemp production in 1998.

This is some old stuff. The Declaration of Independence was drafted on hemp paper. I don’t know if our treaties were written on hemp paper, but it's possible. Both the Navajo Nation and the Oglala Sioux Council passed ordinances and resolutions on hemp. But at that time, the Drug Enforcement Agency came down with a heavy hand – particularly on the White Plume Tiospaye in Pine Ridge – which grew 0 percent THC hemp, from 2000 to 2002, on their family allotments.

That crop had been legalized by the Oglala Sioux Tribe, however, in all three years, the crops were raided by DEA SWAT teams destroying thousands of dollars worth of seed. Federal prosecutions were extensive, but the family escaped imprisonment, but was barred from any more hemp farming. Ironically, the raids had dispersed seed throughout their land and the crops remain today, although the family is barred from harvest. That was then, it’s not clear what that means in light of the change in Justice Department policy.


Marijuana Math

Tribal communities would be unable, under the present regulatory scheme, to sell marijuana off-reservation unless the surrounding state legalized marijuana. This is the case of the Pomo, or a tribe in any state with medical or recreational use. The licensing issue is not clear as of yet, but when the state of Minnesota held its informational meeting on the new medical marijuana policy, regulatory officials stated that tribal sovereignty would dictate growing in that state, but no word on distribution or sales off-reservation. This is likely to be determined in the upcoming year. The question of a local tribal economy in marijuana, however is worth some considering.

The Marijuana economy, however, is a robust deal in Colorado. The state of Colorado is likely to haul in around $43 million this year from marijuana taxes. That is a 27 percent tax on marijuana and that’s taxes, not business. It’s got a huge ripple through the economy for sure, from growers to hydroponic suppliers to bakers. Colorado is sort of unique in its situation and demographics, but it's a booming industry.


Red Lake Tribal Council to research feasibility of marijuana
Friday, February 06 2015
 
Written by Michael Meuers, Red Lake News,
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red_lake_tribal_council_to_reseach_feasibility_of_marijuana.jpgRED LAKE, Minn. – Although the subject was not on the printed agenda for the Red Lake Tribal Council at the regularly scheduled monthly meeting on Jan. 13, recent acts by the federal government concerning Indian tribes, hemp and marijuana prompted several tribes to explore the feasibility of growing medical marijuana and industrial hemp.

Red Lake Chairman Darrell G. Seki, Sr., added the agenda item shortly after the call to order. He said he felt the federal ruling should at least be discussed. Seki cited several tribes that are looking deeper into the issue and mentioned fewer yet that were actually taking action.

Immediately, Red Lake citizen and Gardening Tech at Red Lake Traditional Foods David Manuel asked to address those assembled and spoke of the economic advantages to getting involved with at least industrial hemp and possibly medical marijuana. “Give me one of those three green houses near the elementary school for a year and I'll give you five million dollars," Manuel said. He offered no plan nor statistics for that claim.

Nearly everyone on the 11-member tribal council weighed in, including several chiefs and Red Lake members seated in the audience. Discussion ran the gamut from favorable to cautionary for both industrial hemp and medicinal marijuana.

Council member Roman Stately said toward the end of the discussion, that he "knew very little about either hemp or marijuana. We need a feasibility study. Lets learn about it.” Several council members and citizens agreed that they just were unfamiliar with the issue and that the tribe should explore the matter from a legal, economic and other issues surrounding the federal memo.

It was then moved and seconded, then passed unanimously to direct Red Lake Economic Development and Legal Departments to conduct a feasibility study and fact-finding mission on the issue and report back to council at an unspecified time.

Seki emphasized that whatever the outcome, no resolutions or tribal laws will be enacted without consultation with the membership both in informational meetings and eventually in a referendum … a vote of the entire nation. “Whatever we do, it will be done very carefully,” he said.

Seki, who holds informational and brainstorming sessions in each of the four Red Lake communities from time to time, said that for the next series of community meetings will be conducted over a two week period in February, that he will add the issue to the agenda and encouraged all Red Lake members to participate in that and all issues of concern to the tribe.


Red Lake Chairman and Treasurer travel to DC
Friday, February 06 2015
 
Written by Michael Meuers, Red Lake News,
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red lake washington dc-web.jpgWASHINGTON, D.C. – Red Lake Tribal Chairman Darrell G. Seki, Sr., and Treasurer Annette Johson, along with others met with members of the Minnesota Congressional delegation on Jan. 28 in Washington, D.C. to discuss a number of issues of concern to the Red Lake Band.

According to a tribal spokesperson, Seki and Johnson met with Minnesota's Sens. Amy Klobuchar and Al Franken. Reps. Collin Peterson, D-Moorhead, and Rick Nolan, D-Duluth.

Red Lake's lack of criminal jurisdiction over non-band members was the primary focus of the visits with the Congressional delegates. Tribal officials said they would like to have jurisdiction to prosecute non-members who bring drugs onto the Red Lake Reservation.

“All Congressmen were shocked to hear of our troubles with drug dealers and were very responsive to the Band's issues that were raised,” tribal spokespersons said. "Sen. Amy Klobuchar even suggested that a tribal summit – to include all of Minnesota's eleven tribes – would be in order, to discuss this and other topics of mutual concern to Indian Nations."

Seki and Johnson also met with the Bureau of Indian Affairs Assistant Secretary Kevin Washburn (Chickasaw) about the BIA's push to move funding from "one time funding" to a grant-based approach, a move that the Red Lake Band strongly opposes.

Other issues addressed by the Red Lake delegation included Red Lake's concern regarding insufficient funding for tribal roads, specifically the calculation formulas used by the federal government which allow tribes with smaller land bases to receive equal or even more funding. The Enbridge Pipeline was also discussed.

 

PHOTO: Red Lake Chairman Darrell G. Seki, Sr. and Treasurer Annette Johnson visit with U.S. Senator Amy Klobuchar, D-Minn. (Photo by Michael Meuers)


Celebrating local and Indigenous foods: Dinner on the Farm and the Sioux Chef
Friday, February 06 2015
 
Written by Ann Treacy, TC Daily Planet,
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dinner_2-web.jpgIt’s a good time to be a foodie. There are lots of food happenings around town, you just need to know where to look. Dinner on the Farm is a good place to start.

During the summer, Dinner on the Farm hosts chef-planned and prepared dinners on farms. They are fun family-friendly events that also often include good, local beer or wine. There’s special pricing for kids so please don’t tell the organizers, but I have seen my kid eat her weight in beef then wash is down with a gallon of strawberries and cream as she chases cows in the field at these events. The dinners are summer highlights. It’s a fun way to learn about a local farm (local may mean up to two hours from the Twin Cities), an emerging chef and often local breweries or other specialty food producers are included. The only way to find out about them is sign up. (Pssst – signing up is free!)

During the winter, Dinner on the Farm hosts Underground Dinner Parties – in art galleries, breweries, Tiki rooms, haunted houses and other fun places. These are less family friendly as they often have a higher level of alcohol content; they also involve a lot less driving. It’s a fun way to meet other foodies. (Be warned it’s not a place to pick up foodies since mingling is minimal and most folks come in groups but with a little effort and sometimes wine you get to meet the most interesting people!)

This last weekend the underground dinner turned to brunch at the Dogwood Coffee Roastery. I heard the coffee was amazing. I’m not a coffee drinker but I was introduced to Spruce Soda Ginger Beer drinker. I have been looking for something to replace Diet Coke; this is on the shortlist. It’s sweet but not syrupy or sugary. And it’s all natural.

The brunch included dry salamis from Red Table. I will forego bacon with brunch any and every there’s dry meats from Red Table on the buffet. Rise provided the bagels; they feature only locally grown and organic ingredients. Soft on the inside, a bite on the outside. Holds spreads and jams well!


Passing On: Wilmer Mesteth
Friday, February 06 2015
 
Written by The Circle Staff,
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Wilmer Mesteth wilmer mesteth-web.jpg

1957-Jan. 16, 2015

Oglala Lakota spiritual leader Wilmer Mesteth died unexpectedly at midnight on Jan. 16.

He will be remembered as a man who was as generous with his time and spiritual teachings. Mesteth served his people in every possible way. Those who are mourning his passing are remembering his guidance, direction and leadership.

According to his daughter Rachel, Mesteth underwent surgery for a double hernia on Jan. 8 and was recovering at the Prairie Winds Hotel in Pine Ridge, S.D.. In the afternoon, he was visiting with his adopted brothers when he called his wife with concerns that he was having a heart attack.

Mesteth lived in the Cheyenne Creek community and was married to Lisa Mesteth. He taught at Oglala Lakota College for over 20 years, where he was a cultural instructor. He taught traditional songs, dance, traditional herbs and foods, language and history. OLC student Lilly Jones said about Mesteth, “He treated everyone the same. Whether it was a Hollywood film crew or a student, he was always so respectful and humble.”

Mesteth also participated in the Big Foot Rides and the Crazy Horse Rides, and supported the Northern Cheyenne Fort Robinson Run.

Survivors include his wife Lisa Standing Elk-Mesteth and children Juan Mesteth, Lonnie Mesteth, Ronnie Mesteth, Hoksila Mesteth, Dakota Mesteth and Rachel Mesteth, all of Pine Ridge, S.D.; brothers Gilbert Mesteth and Phil Iron Cloud of Pine Ridge and Phillip Mesteth of Ethete, Wyo.; sisters Mary Ann Mesteth-Witt, Lynette Mesteth-Murray of Parmelee, S.D., Ruth Mesteth-Gray Horse and Letitia American Horse of Ethete, Wyo., Dennis Mesteth-Spoon Hunter of Fayetteville, N.C. Wilmer had 19 grandchildren. Numerous hunka children, brothers and sisters.

Wilmer was preceded in death by his parents Gabriel Mesteth, Sr., Rosalyn Red Shirt-Mesteth and his siblings Daniel Mesteth, Gabriel Mesteth, Jr., Orlin Mesteth and Theresa Mesteth.

Two night wake services were held on Jan. 21 at the Lakota Dome, Prairie Wind Casino, Pine Ridge, S.D., and Jan. 22 at the Mesteth family residence, Cheyenne Creek, S.D.. The funeral was held at Jan. 23 at the Mesteth family residence. Arrangements were handled by the Sioux Funeral Home of Pine Ridge.



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