Local Briefs
January 2016
Thursday, January 07 2016
Written by The Circle,
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Thru July 2016
Why Treaties Matter traveling exhibit

This exhibit explores relationships between Dakota and Ojibwe Indian Nations and the U.S. government in Minnesota. Learn how treaties affected the lands and lifeways of the indigenous peoples of this place, and why these binding agreements still matter today. For info, see:
• Jan. 11-24: Winona State University, Winona.
• Feb. 1 - 21: Minnesota State College-Southeast Technical, Winona.
• Feb. 29 - March 23: Alexandria Technical and Community College, Alexandria.
• March 30 - April 17: Minneapolis Community and Technical College, Minneapolis.
• April 25 - May 15: Metro State University, St. Paul.
• June 27 - July 17: Minnesota State Community and Technical College, Detroit Lakes.

Thru Jan. 16  
Dimensions of Indigenous: Storytelling

Dimensions of Indigenous: Storytelling is a multi-disciplinary all nations art exhibition featuring both contemporary and traditional work of Indigenous artists of the Americas whose work evokes decolonization, resistance, and cultural identity. Curated by Gordon Coons (Ojibwa)  and Rebekah Crisanta de Ybarra, (Xinka-Lenca). Artists include: Colleen Casey (Dakota), Dakota Hoska, (Lakota) Maggie Thompson (Ojibwe), Cole Jacobson (Cree), Gordon Coons (Ojibwa), Julie Boada (Anishinabe), Gustavo Boada (Moche), Xilam Balam, (Mexica), Zamara Cuyun (K'iche/ Kaqchikel), Gabriela Erandi Spears (Matlatzinca/P'urhepecha), Rebekah Crisanta (Xinka-Lenca), Gustavo Lira (Mixteco/Zapotec). Closing reception: Jan. 16 from 2-5 pm. Join artists and curators for a closing reception to celebrate the work and artists. Music performance by Gustavo Lira & Xilam Balam. Exhibit runs Nov.19 to Jan. 16, 2016. Gallery hours: Monday-Friday from 10 am to -6 pm, and Saturdays from 12 to 5 pm. Admission: sliding scale; $3-10 per person suggested. Intermedia Arts, 2822 Lyndale Ave. S., Minneapolis. For info, call 612-871-4444, email: Info@, or see:

Thru Jan. 19
Mazinaakizige: Am. Indian Teen Photography Project -What Brings Us Together

Two Rivers Gallery and the Minnesota Historical Society present the Mazinaakizige: American Indian Teen Photography Project exhibition. "What Brings Us Together”. A culmination of bringing together six American Indian youth artists to develop their digital photography skills in a guided, supportive, and culturally sensitive environment. The artists show a selection of photographs that they have taken through a ten-week program utilizing the skills they learned. This exhibition will travel across the state of Minnesota throughout the 2015-2016 program year. Artists: Esmarie Cariaga, Wihinape Hunt, Ivan Mckeithan, Lupe Thornhill, and Austin Verley. Two Rivers Gallery, MAIC, 1530 E Franklin Ave, Minneapolis.

Thru Feb. 21
Arriving at Fresh Water: Contemporary Native Artists from Our Great Lakes

What is Native art today? It’s witty and warm, colorful and critical. It celebrates the past while challenging expectations. And some of the best art is being made right here and now in the Great Lakes area. This exhibition presents 14 of the region’s most visionary artists. They’re boldly tackling the biggest, most universal issues of the day, exploring truth and justice, community and self. They’re chronicling their own histories and the sweep of societal change. They’re pushing past assumptions into the realm of revelation—the promise of beauty to change the way we see. Free admission. Runs thru Feb. 21 at the Minneapolis Institute of Art, Gallery 255, 2400 Third Avenue South, Minneapolis. For more info, see

Thru March 4
Re-riding History: From the Southern Plains to Matanzas Bay

Artists respond to the historical journey of the Fort Marion prisoners through the creation of one original work on paper. Featuring work from dozens of artists including, Norman Akers, Edgar Heap of Birds, Georgia Deal, Jim Denomie, Shan Goshorn, Dyani White Hawk, Tom Jones, America Meredith, Hoka Skenadore, Jaune Quick-to-See Smith, and many more. Emily Arthur, Marwin Begaye and John Hitchcock present a curatorial project which metaphorically retraces the history of seventy-two American Indian peoples who were forcibly taken from their homes in Salt Fork, OK, and transported by train to St. Augustine, Florida. The United States war department imprisoned Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Caddo leaders under Lieutenant Richard Henry Pratt from 1875-1878. The curators asked seventy-two artists to respond to the experience of imprisonment by creating an individual work on paper. The artists selected include Native American, non-Native and descendants from both periods of imprisonment. Free and open to the public. All My Relations Gallery, 1414 E. Franklin Ave., Minneapolis. For more info, call 612-235-4970, or see:

Jan. 8
Native Arts & Crafts Sale

Native Arts & Crafts Sale First Friday of the Month. First Friday of each month the Native Art and Craft Sale takes place. Stop and shop for unique handmade items made by local Native American Artists. Shop local and support the local community. 1308 Franklin Ave Mpls MN. For more info, call Jacque Wilson at 612-871-6618. See Facebook page at :

Jan. 8
Sobriety Friday Monthly Celebration Dinner

Come and join us for an evening featuring special speakers, testimonials of sobriety, great food, gospel music and door prizes. Sponsored by Overcomers Ministries. This is a monthly event on the 2nd Friday of each month. 6:30 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. At The American Indian Center, 1530 E. Franklin Ave. Mpls.

Jan 8, 22
Phillips Indian Educators

Upcoming meeting for the Phillips Indian Educators will be held beginning at 9:00 am. All meetings are held at Migizi Communications, 1516 E Lake St #300, Minneapolis. Meetings for 2016 include: 1/8, 1/22, 2/12, 2/26, 3/11, 3/25, 4/8, 4/22, 5/6, 5/20, 6/10, 6/24, 7/8, 7/22. For more info, contact Joe Rice at Nawayee Center School at: This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it

Jan. 13
Free Writing Class for Writers of Color

This free, informal class is a preview of the free, craft-centered creative writing class David Mura will teach for writers of color and Indigenous writers at the Loft beginning February 3. In this preview class, Mura will introduce basic craft elements for writing poetry and fiction, engage students in one or two writing exercises, discuss issues related to the writing process, and touch on issues facing writers of color and Indigenous writers. Only open to writers of color and Indigenous writers (defined as people who are of Native American, Indigenous, Pacific Islander, Asian, Asian American, Arab, Middle Eastern, African, African American, Afro-Caribbean, Latino/a, Chicano/a, and mixed descent). No preregistration necessary, come as you are. 7:00 -8:30 p.m. Cafe SouthSide, 3405 Chicago Ave S, Minneapolis, 55407. The full class schedule will run Feb. 3 through Aug. 10, 14 sessions total.

Jan. 15 (deadline)
First Nations Development Institute Grants

First Nations Development Institute will award up to six grants of up to $30,000 each to strengthen the organizational, managerial and programmatic capacity of Native American-controlled nonprofit organizations and tribal government programs that have existing efforts in place to serve the field of Native American arts and artists in tribal communities in four states – Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Applications are due by 5 p.m. Mountain Time on January 15, 2016. Eligible applicants must have existing program initiatives in place that emphasize strengthening the field of Native American arts and building the capacity of Native American artists in Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. All applicants must fully complete the First Nations online grant application, including the submission of all necessary attachments. For-profit organizations and individual artists are not eligible. First Nations does not require federal recognition for tribal governments to apply, but they must have state recognition. More information and the online grant application can be found here:

Jan.16, 23, 30 Feb. 13
Science Fusion: celebrate diversity in science

Connect with the diverse community of scientific professionals from the Twin Cities through science experiments and activities. Show young people of underserved communities the incredible career opportunities available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Come to one of our four annual Science Fusion events, tailored for kids and adults alike. Up to four children get in free with each full price adult ticket purchased. Science Museum of Minnesota,  120 W. Kellogg Blvd., Saint Paul. For more info, call 651-221-9444 or see:
• Jan. 16: African Americans in Science, 1 to 4 p.m.
• Jan. 23: ¡Amantes de la Ciencia!, Saturday, 1 to 4 p.m.
• Jan. 30: American Indians in Science, 1 to 4 p.m.
• Feb. 13: Asian Americans in Science, 1 to 4 p.m.

Jan. 27 (deadline)
Harvard’s Honoring Nation­

The Honoring Nations 2016 awards cycle is now open for nominations and applications. Honoring Nations will award up to six exemplary tribal programs. High Honors programs will receive $5,000 and Honors programs receive $2,000. Honoring Nations invites applications from American Indian governments across a broad range of subject areas, including, but not limited to: Economic, Social & Cultural Programs; Natural Resource Management; Governmental Policy Development & Reform; Intergovernmental Relations; Education, Justice and Health. To nominate a program or apply for an award, visit the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development website at or call 617-495-1480. The application deadline is January 27, 2016.

Jan. 27
The Native American Cancer Support Group

If you or someone you know is a cancer patient or survivor, we encourage you to join us for a meal and good company. This month we meet Wed. Jan. 27th from 6 to 8 pm, at East Phillips Park Cultural & Community Center, 2307 17th Avenue South, Minneapolis. For more information, call Joy Rivera at 612-314-4843 or email  This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it

Feb. 1 (deadline)
College Scholarship Opportunity for TC High School Students

Wallin Education Partners has been providing financial and advising support to guide local Twin Cities students to college completion and is now accepting applications from current high school seniors. Wallin Education Partners selects students with high potential and financial need from 28 Twin Cities high schools to receive financial aid, professional advising and additional scholar services – providing not only the money for college, but the tools and resources to help students make the most of the experience. This unique program has resulted in more than 90% of scholars graduating from college. Selected scholars receive: Committed financial aid – up to $4,000/year for four years to augment grants and financial aid; Professional advisors—to help navigate college every step of the way; College to career programming – corporate mentors, internships, specialized career nights and more to help lead scholars toward fulfilling careers after college; ual, and foundation partners. Financial need is determined by family taxable income (must be less than $75,000 a year) and low to moderate assets. Any majors are accepted, but students are required to attend an eligible four-year public or private college within Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota or Wisconsin or one of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Applications will be accepted until February 1, 2016 and can be submitted online at Additional information about eligibility can be found on Wallin’s website: 

March 19—20
18th Annual Cherish the Children Traditional Powwow

Doors Open at 11:00am. Registration at 11:00am. Grand Entries: Saturday 1:00 & 7:00pm, Feast: 5:00pm, Sunday 1:00pm. Co -Emcees: Jerry Dearly and Reuben Crowfeather. Host Drum: Tomahawk Circle. Invited Drum: Oyate Teca. First 10 registered drums with a minimum of 5 singers will receive an honorarium. $5 Entry fee for ages 7+ Free entry for Elders & Veterans. Free entry per person with our Roy Roberts “Family in Need” Drive - donate a household/ family item. Youth Dance Specials—youth 17 years and under—(cash prizes). All Ages 2 Step Special—(1st-2nd-3rd place prizes). Junior Hand Drum Contest—(1st-2nd-3rd place prizes). 5th Annual Ain Dah Yung Center Ambassador Contest. For details contact This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it Central High School, 275 Lexington Ave. St. Paul, MN.

Marcus Lee Roberts
Thursday, January 07 2016
Written by The Circle,
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Marcus Lee Roberts
September 4, 1980 - December 9, 2015

marcusrobertobituarysm.jpgMarcus Lee Roberts, age 35 of Bloomington, entered the Sprit World unexpectedly Wednesday, December 9, 2015. Funeral services were held December 14 at St. Cornelia’s Episcopal Church at the Lower Sioux Community.  Visitation was Saturday evening at the church hall.  There was a prayer service  and visitation up to the time of the service on Monday. Burial is in St. Cornelia’s Episcopal Cemetery. Online condolences may be sent online at Stephens Funeral Service - Redwood Valley Funeral Home in Redwood Falls assisted the family with arrangements.

Marcus Lee Roberts was born September 4, 1980 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the first born son of Timothy Roberts and Elaine (Smith) Pierce. He attended South High in Minneapolis and Redwood Valley High School. Marcus worked in the manufacturing industry and the gaming industry. He was a family man, a fun loving man, and beloved son, father, brother, cousin, and uncle. Marcus was the kind of man you wanted on your side in any occasion. He enjoyed playing disc golf and spending time with his kids, family, and friends. If it meant going broke to have fun, he didn’t sweat it. 

Marcus is survived by his father Timothy Roberts; mother Elaine Pierce; children: Chance, Makaylee, Alexis, Techa, and Elisa; grandmothers Lillian Wilson and Ardythe Smith; siblings: Jeremy, Paul, Kenny, Krista, Nokoma, Wakinyanna, and Jasmine; and many other relatives and friends.  He is preceded in death by his infant daughter Chasity and two grandfathers.

Change is Hard but Inevitable
Thursday, January 07 2016
Written by Nick Metcalf,
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As I reflect on 2016, I’d like to share a few experiences of change. What I’ve come to know about living is that change is inevitable. Change is hard. Change, it’s a part of life.

A few months ago I was reminded that everything that I believed to be secure isn’t. I realized it was time to venture on from my job once again. The time came to wander onto the next place. I’d learned everything that I was going to in my job. I was hurt because I believed in the security, I bought into the safety. I believed I could see my life into the distance with the same job. I saw ordinary days, piled on ordinary days.  

Eventually, my last day at work came. I was alone in my office. My going away party was done, with all the well wishes and promises to stay in touch. I sat there and packed my thoughts and gathered my things. I prepared for where life was gonna take me next. I was kind of afraid, but I was excited for another adventure. I’d learned as much as I could at that job and I know, change is inevitable.   

Recently, my sister and I spent some time talking about when we left home, the Reservation. Leaving was one of the hardest decisions we made. We left the familiarity of family. We left the environment we knew. Change was necessary. We moved to pursue the opportunities for work. With the blessing of our parents, we embarked on making our lives here in Minneapolis.

It has taken us awhile to get settled into our lives here in Minneapolis. Initially we were home sick and went home often. After a while, we established our lives here. We have friends who have become family. We found a supportive community. Our lives are filled up with many things here, so we don’t go home as often as we’d like. As my sister and I sat visiting, we fell into quiet reflection remembering how difficult the change was, but how far we’ve come. We both agreed that we’d do it again.

In times of change, the content of a person’s character is revealed. If you unprepared for it then it’ll be a difficult. I say this because some people use alcohol or drugs to numb the quandary of change.    

People get caught up in addiction. Addiction is heart wrenching and devastating to witness. It’s a horrible experience when it’s someone you love, or someone who is fundamental to who you are, ie. parents, siblings, relatives, a partner, a lover, your best friend, etc. You listen. You help. You offer support. You assist. Until one day, you realize that you are drowning with them. You’re gasping for air. You stand up while they continue to thrash about. They tug and pull at you. You’re desperate to hold them up.

It’s instinctual, it’s you or them. Letting go feels like failure. Letting go feels like loss. Letting go is filled with guilt. When you finally let go they interpret this as betrayal. They scream at you. They say horrible things to you. They say horrible things about you. They tug on your values to get back in your good graces and to rejoin them. Sometimes, you falter then find yourself caught up in the throes of their addictive cycle.

Eventually, you mourn the loss of them. Their words haunt you. Their addiction becomes too much to bear. It’s a difficult lesson when you realize that their darkness, their dark day of the soul, their struggle belongs to them.

Guilt from abandonment becomes your unwelcome friend. Sometimes, there are momentary glimpses of the person you know. They are vibrant. They are alive. They are themselves. It is momentary. The day they die everything comes crashing down. Often times, their death is at their own hands, or as a result of a lifestyle they are caught up within, or as a result of someone who is caught up with them in that lifestyle. You pray they finally found comfort in death cause their life was wrought up in pain.

n time, you sit along their grave, so to speak, then you tell their story. You share the times they were awe inspiring, life changing, and the person you knew before addiction. Their story becomes a cautionary tale. Drugs or alcohol took them way too soon. Their story, their life, changed you.  

I’ve learned that change begins to ignite each time a person lives their ordinary lives doing extraordinary acts to be themselves. Those moments occur without public fanfare. Each and every moment you are becoming who you are called to be, now that is revolutionary.   

2016 is gonna be another incredible year, another opportunity, another chance to be better, to do better, to accomplish more, to hold my loved ones closer…Change is amazing. Change is inevitable.

Photography exhibit features rare portraits of Red Lake people
Thursday, January 07 2016
Written by Brenda Child and Joseph Whitson,
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redlakeexhibitphotosm.jpgSinging Our History: People and Places of the Red Lake Nation, will be at the Katherine E. Nash Gallery at the University of Minnesota from January 19-February 13, 2016. There will be an opening Reception and Drum on Saturday, January 23 from 6 until 9 pm, featuring Ojibwe foods and culture.

The exhibition explores the many ways the Red Lake Nation has been and continues to be portrayed by artists and members of its communities through art and photography.

The exhibit is a collaboration between the Red Lake Ojibwe community and faculty and graduate students in the Department of American Studies. It features rare portraits of Red Lake people taken by Jerome Liebling in the 1950s, in addition to dozens of familiar images by the photojournalist, Charles Brill.

Jerome Liebling (1924-2011) photographed the people of Minnesota for two decades, beginning in 1949. Meatpacking plants, the state capital in session, homes for the disabled, the immigrant neighborhoods of St. Paul’s west side, and the Red Lake Ojibwe Reservation were each sites for  his purposeful photography.  His images have been collected by major art museums.

The first Professor of Photography in the Department of Art at the University of Minnesota, Liebling grew up in Brooklyn. Still in his late twenties when he first visited Red Lake, Liebling was deeply impressed by their people, culture, and unique political history, which remained an unalloted reservation closed to white settlement. He commented at the time, “Its setting was beautiful, but poverty was everywhere.”

Liebling portrayed Ojibwe people in ways that were dignifying, and used the opportunity to make visible a statement about poverty and social injustice in rural America, this time in Indian Country.

As Liebling said of his career, “My sympathies remained more with the folk who had to struggle to stay even, whose voices were often excluded from the general discourse.”

Charles Brill (1932-2003) was a pioneering photojournalist best known for his photography of American Indians at the Red Lake Reservation in the 1960s and ‘70s. The first photojournalist to graduate from the University of Minnesota, Brill worked for the Minneapolis Star Tribune before joining the faculty at Kent State University where he taught for the remainder of his career.

First arriving in Red Lake to photograph the annual powwow in 1964, Brill returned to the community many times over the following decades, resulting in the publication of his book “Indian and Free” in 1974 by the University of Minnesota Press.

The homeland of the Red Lake people is in northern Minnesota, and notable for never having sold or allotted their approximately 800,000 acres of land and water. The tribe is now involved in the project of constitutional reform, with a referendum expected in November, 2016.

he Singing Our History exhibit is an extension of the current interest at Red Lake in deepening their exploration of history, including the early constitutions. The exhibit features Liebling’s portrait of Peter Graves, the political leader associated with the first constitution. The exhibit will be permanently installed in the new tribal council and college buildings at a later date.

Today, the twin-cities metropolitan community is home to many Red Lake citizens and their families. Extending far beyond Red Lake Indian Reservation in northern Minnesota, Red Lake is a nation of Ojibwe people represented by communities throughout the state. All tribal citizens, regardless of residence, are eligible to participate in discussions and vote on the new constitution.

The exhibition weaves together the works of photographers in addition to Red Lake artists. Significantly, a private collector, the Minnesota Museum of Art, and the Minnesota Historical Society have loaned a number of paintings by Patrick Desjarlait (1921-1972) to the exhibit and his masterpiece, Red Lake Fishermen, 1946 will be featured.

As Desjarlait said, “I have always wanted to show others the interest and pride that the Chippewa take in their families, their ceremonies, and their environment.”

The Katherine E. Nash Gallery presents a portrait of contemporary Red Lake life for Ojibwe communities both on and off of the reservation. Accordingly, the exhibit will also feature art produced by a younger generation of Red Lake Nation members. Visitors, especially Ojibwe people and families of the artists and those photographed by the artists, are invited to participate in the ongoing narratives explored in the gallery, by adding their stories and pictures to the exhibition through a Workshop space in the gallery.

Gallery hours are 11 am to 7 pm, Tuesday through Saturday at the Katherine E. Nash Gallery, Regis Center for Art, University of Minnesota, 405 21st Avenue South, Minneapolis, 612/624-7530. Parking is available nearby on the street and at the 21st Avenue ramp. The parking ramp and the Regis Center for Art and gallery are wheelchair-accessible.

Exhibitions and related events are free and open to the public.

Four art exhibitions along Native American Cultural Corridor to see
Thursday, January 07 2016
Written by Andrea Carlson,
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At this very moment there are four pride-inducing art exhibitions in South Minneapolis that are showcasing the rich and abundant visions of Native artists. On Friday, December 4th two exhibitions opened to the public, kicking off an Arts Crawl along Franklin Avenue’s American Indian Cultural Corridor.

Two Rivers Gallery and All My Relations Gallery are two galleries situated within earshot of each other. Further along Franklin Avenue the Minneapolis Institute of Art participated in the Arts Crawl by keeping the museum open late for a tour of the Native American galleries and for the exhibition “Arriving at Fresh Water.” Lastly, Intermedia Arts on Lyndale Avenue is hosting an exhibition titled “Dimensions of Indigenous: Storytelling.” Below is a potential art literary that can be used as a guide.

Stop 1: “What Brings Us Together”
Two Rivers Gallery, 1530 E. Franklin Ave., Minneapolis, MN.
Hrs: Monday – Tuesday: 10 am - 4 pm
On View: December 4 – January 19

native_art_tworivergalleryartcrawlsm.jpgAfter a several-year hiatus Two Rivers Gallery re-opened its door in May 2015 and is already turning out strong programming activities and exhibitions. “What Brings Us Together”, Two River’s current exhibition, is presented in partnership with the Minnesota Historical Society and features the photography of six teenage artists. Austin Verley, Wihinape Hunt, Esmarie Cariaga, Elizabeth Santana, Ivan Mckeithan and Lupe Thornhill committed ten Saturdays to developing bodies of work that range from intimate, domestic settings to political images of resistance.
About the Two Rivers Gallery’s distinctive programmatic offerings, Gallery Director Maggie Thompson said, “My dream is for it to become a hub for art and culture, a place where artists of all levels and of all ages are welcome.”
This dream isn’t a lofty vision of distant future plans for the space but is actively happening. Thompson said, “Right now we are partnered with the First Gift, where community members, mostly Native women, work together to craft baby moccasins for Native babies born at Children’s Hospital. This takes place every other Monday in the gallery. There is a community sewing bee once a month for Emily Johnson/Catalyst’s Stargazing Project in the space, where community members are coming together to hand stitch a 4,000 sq. ft. quilt for community stargazing and dance performance premiering in spring of 2017... And, we hope to be starting up an art space in the basement of the MAIC, providing a room for workshops and artists to have space to work after the new year. We are also interested in displaying, showing all forms of art, not just fine art, but dance, theater, music, spoken word, etc. We had a dance workshop with Maura Garcia and have held auditions for Missy Whiteman’s film ‘The Coyote Way.’”
Located in the Minneapolis American Indian Center, Two Rivers Gallery is well-situated for this welcoming model of inclusion and partnerships across fields and interests, after all the center was created with these ideas in mind. Creating a setting that is activated by participants is going to be the major strength of the gallery going forward.

Stop 2: “Re-riding History: From the Southern Plains to Matanzas Bay”
All My Relations Gallery , 1414 East Franklin Avenue, Minneapolis, MN.
Hrs: Tuesday – Friday: 10 am - 5 pm; Saturday: 11 am - 3 pm.
On View: December 4, 2015 – March 4, 2016

native_art_amrgartcrawlsm.jpgCurated by Emily Arthur, Marwin Begaye and John Hitchcock, Re-Riding History is a traveling exhibition where contemporary artists were invited to create works in the fashion of ledger art, an art form that sprung up in the face of horrific US policies of the forced removal and imprisonment of Native Americans.

The curatorial statement says that the project metaphorically retraces the history of seventy-two American Indian peoples who were forcibly taken from their homes in Salt Fork, Oklahoma, and transported by train to St. Augustine, Florida. The United States war department imprisoned Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Caddo leaders under Lieutenant Richard Henry Pratt from 1875-1878.

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